Industry participants are attempting to reduce carbon emissions to zero by developing more environmentally friendly Lithium Energy Storage Systems. The current power grids are inefficient, with a significant amount of electricity lost due to a disconnect between the generation plant's output and actual consumption. This mismatch has prompted the development of Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS).
A BESS is a battery-based energy storage system (ESS) that captures energy from several places, stores it, and then discharges it as electricity when needed. The battery's electrochemical energy is discharged when necessary and supplied to residences, electric automobiles, and industrial and commercial facilities.
The BESS battery, like other battery systems, is susceptible to deterioration and aging over time. So, if you're wondering what causes energy storage system deterioration, this article is for you.
Battery types and Ageing
The capacity of a battery degrades gradually over time. This is referred to as battery aging, and it is an irreversible process caused by physical and chemical changes over the years. Certain factors, on the other hand, may speed up the rate of deterioration. Some of these factors include:
- A high charging current is required for charging.
- Batteries that take a long time to charge even after they have reached their full charge capacity
- Charging the battery at very low temperatures, of less than 10°C
- Battery cells should not be kept or stored at temperatures above 40°C.
- Cycling cells of more than their combined operating range or voltage capacity
The two most common types of battery deterioration in energy storage systems are:
When a battery is in resting mode, calendar aging takes place. This is the condition when there isn't any current flowing through the battery. It's an important factor that leads to lithium-ion batteries in Energy Storage Systems ageing especially if their operational hours are longer than their sleeping time.
The number of charge and discharge cycles a battery goes through before it loses its effectiveness is known as its cycle life. One of the most significant factors affecting the cycle duration of your lithium-ion battery is the depth of discharge.
When your battery is charged or discharged, it undergoes a chemical change. Parasitic physiochemical changes causing the deterioration of your battery energy capacity and power capabilities are one type of aging mechanism.
Factors Affecting the Age of Lithium Energy Storage Systems
The wide temperature range, according to studies, is the major reason for battery deterioration in energy storage systems. The moment you start using your battery, it begins to age. Nonetheless, the number of times your battery is charged and discharged has an impact on how long it will last. The following are some of the factors that influence battery deterioration:
Battery Charge Cycle
A battery charge cycle is one complete round of battery drainage and recharge. So counting the process of completely draining a battery and then recharging it all the way to 100 as one battery charge cycle. Using up to 50% of the battery capacity and recharging it back to 100, on the other hand, constitutes one charge cycle.
The more times your battery is charged and discharged, the more it deteriorates. This aging process happens as a result of this.
Trickle Charging and Overcharging
Overcharging the batteries by leaving them on charge after they have achieved 100 percent can also harm their life and cause a fire. On the other side, trickle charging is where you fill-up the battery as soon as it dips below 100%.
This can also reduce the life and capacity of your battery. Extreme charging patterns, high temperature (both ambient and operational), overcharging, and undershooting are all examples of this deterioration.
At low temperatures, the negative electrode's reaction with the electrolyte forms a protective coating on its surface.
This top layer is never completely effective and thickens as the cell ages. This drains lithium that would otherwise be responsible for or contribute to your battery's cell capacity. The more surface area of the negative electrode there is, the more coverage it will require, resulting in capacity reduction.
The chemical reaction of the Lithium Energy Storage Systems increases in speed as the temperature rises, contributing to battery deterioration. Higher temperatures increase the risk of a rapid formation of a protective layer on the negative electrode.
How to Minimize Battery Deterioration
Battery energy storage systems (BESS) are concerned about the issue of battery deterioration. As a result, cell producers feel that advancements in cathode chemistry development might aid extend the life of batteries as well as their cycle and performance lifespan.
The deterioration of the battery's capacity can be prevented by using silicon compound anodes. These anodes may improve energy density considerably. However, they will also cause a larger degree of mechanical failure. Cell producers are already developing alternative chemistries to create electrode materials that would extend the battery lifespan while maintaining energy density.
According to research, BESS with battery packs near the floor has lower temperatures than those on top. The temperature varies from a low of 23°C to a high of 32°C. As a result, energy storage system manufacturers must build sophisticated cooling systems into their devices.
This technique will assist in controlling and regulating the system's overall temperature. Slowing down the ageing process of the battery will be useful in reusing second-life batteries to extend the overall lifespan of the energy storage system as a whole.
It is essential to regularly monitor the health of your batteries. Doing so will help you identify when a replacement is necessary. You can use techniques such as capacity fade testing, impedance measurements, and visual inspections to do this. The regular monitoring of BESS will also help to identify any issues early on and prevent them from becoming larger problems down the road.
Battery energy storage systems are more energy-efficient power storage methods than traditional electric grids. Battery deterioration is an irreversible process influenced by a variety of elements, including battery charge cycles, overcharging, and trickle charging. If you want to slow down the battery aging process, using good charging procedures to regulate and maintain battery temperatures is the most effective approach.
The key to prolonging the life of your battery is to prevent it from deteriorating in the first place. However, if you do notice that your battery is beginning to degrade, there are ways to slow down the process and extend its lifespan. By monitoring your battery regularly, you can identify any issues early on and take steps to prevent further deterioration.